- Tree-scale canopy flow modeling in CFD with source term modification methods.
- The source term modification method is inadequate for low inlet turbulence intensity simulation.
- The prediction of turbulence kinetic energy is sensitive to the model coefficients in the source term of turbulence dissipation rate.
- A strong correlation exists between the form drag coefficient and all additional source terms and their components.
- The effective drag coefficient depending on the green volume in CFD is proposed.
Local air circulation is influenced by the drag forces exerted by urban vegetation. In this study, tree canopy parameterization in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with source term modifications is conducted at the tree scale, which builds upon the models previously used in the literature. A simplified three-dimensional model representing tree canopies is resolved and validated against available wind tunnel experiment. The prediction of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) is shown to be highly sensitive to the model coefficients in the source term of turbulence dissipation rate (TDR). No optimal set of the model coefficients in the TDR source term can be identified. However, is found to better reproduce the turbulent quantities behind the canopy than . The reduction of value from 1.5 to 0.4 yields a higher TDR source term level by one order of magnitude. The prediction of the mean velocity is primarily controlled by the form drag coefficient, which is heavily correlated to all source terms and their components. Results indicate the feasibility of using a more straightforward modification method in the vegetated microclimate simulations by only adding momentum source terms.