- Urban parks must provide cultural services to support growing populations.
- We identify key variables affecting urban park use for multiple cultural services.
- Park facilities and vegetation effect park use for only some cultural services.
- Socio-demographic factors affect park use only for exercise and socialising.
- By targeting specific variables, park management can increase different services.
Urban parks provide numerous cultural ecosystem services that are essential to the wellbeing of residents. However, our understanding of the key variables that determine the provisioning each of these services remains limited, affecting our ability to design greenspaces that provide the unique combination of cultural services required by local residents. Here, we identify variation in the effects of key spatial, environmental, park facility, and socio-demographic variables on the use of urban parks for different cultural ecosystem services, using Brisbane, Australia, as a case study. We completed a participatory GIS survey in which urban residents provided empirical geographic data on urban park visits for different activities and socio-demographic characteristics. These social data were then combined with park vegetation, park facility, and park spatial characteristic data to identify the key variables affecting use for four different cultural services: exercise, nature interactions, social interactions, and relaxation. We show that park characteristics and socio-demographic variables have different effects on all four cultural services. In particular, tree cover decreased park use for social interactions, exercise and relaxation only, and socio-demographics only influenced park use for social interactions and exercise. Among park facilities, the presence of amenities increased only exercise and relaxation visits. Variability in the effects of park characteristics among ecosystem services complicates the ability for urban park management to provide multiple cultural ecosystem services. Identifying and targeting specific variables associated with each ecosystem service is likely to be critical. Our study provides key insights into how to achieve and provide the unique set of cultural services that urban residents require.